SafetyNet 299, October 30,
Welcome to our latest edition of our weekly journal – we hope subscribers find the information useful and interesting.
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Victorian Minister praises state's OHS record
At the end of Health and Safety Week, Assistant Treasurer Gordon Rich-Phillips congratulated Victorian workplaces for being once again identified as 'the safest state' in Australia in which to work. Mr Rich-Phillips said the latest comparison of every state's health and safety schemes by Safe Work Australia (SWA) identified Victoria as the state with the lowest rate of workplace injuries. According to SWA's Comparative Performance Monitoring Report, Victorian workplaces recorded 5.6 claims for every million hours worked in 2012-13, down from six claims in 2011-12, an improvement of more than 6.6 per cent. Victoria was followed by Western Australia (6.1 claims per million hours worked), NSW (6.9), South Australia (7.4), Queensland (8.2) and Tasmania (8.6).
having the lowest number of successful workers compensation claims does not
necessarily mean that Victoria
is the 'safest state'. It may just mean we have one of the toughest
compensation schemes. So, are we really the safest state in Australia?
Read more: Gordon Rich-Phillips Press Release
I have a question regarding hearing tests for employees.If the noise exposure is below the 85 dB(A)'averaged' over 8 hoursdoes the hearing tests still need to be done every 2 years?
No, the regulations require the employer to monitor workplace noise levels. Noise levels must be at 85dB(A) or below (averaged over eight hours), measured at the employee's ear without hearing protection devices.
The employer must ensure that no worker at the workplace is exposed to noise that exceeds the exposure standard, by implementing the following risk control measures (so far as is reasonably practicable) in the following order -
- eliminate the source of the noise;
- if not practicable to eliminate the source, reduce exposure by substituting quieter plant or processes, or by using engineering controls
- if workers are still exposed to noise exceeding the exposure standard after the employer has complied with (b), then reducing their exposure by the use of administrative controls;
- if workers are still exposed to noise exceeding the exposure standard after the employer has complied with (b) & (c), then reducing their exposure so that it does not exceed the standard by providing hearing protectors
the employer has had to issue employees with Hearing protectors the regulations
require that the employer provides audiometric testing for those employees.
Thus, if the noise levels are below the exposure standard, then there is no need
for workers to be provided with and use hearing protection devices, and
therefore, there is no need or requirement for hearing tests.
Read more: Summary of the Noise chapter of the regulations (with a link to the full text of the regulations).
Please send any OHS related queries in to 'Ask Renata' - your query will be responded to as quickly as we can – usually within a couple of days.
One in three mental
health workers physically assaulted this year: HSU
Past editions of SafetyNet (276 and 297) reported on the increasing violence faced by the state's health workers (doctors and nurses). This week, in response to reports of patients in Victoria's mental health wards smuggling in illicit drugs, Lloyd Williams, secretary of the Health Services Union said, "There is no question that drug use and drug-affected individuals are a problem in our acute units. If people have a co-existing drug problem, it's likely they'll bring drugs back in." Mr Williams said there was a link between drug use and "appalling rates of violence against mental health professionals", with union-commissioned research finding one in three workers had been physically assaulted in the past year. "Where drug use is present, there will be an escalation of violence in the units," he said.
related news, in response to the Queensland Government doubling the maximum
sentence to 14 years in jail assaults against doctors, nurses and ambulance
officers, the Queensland Nurses Union has expressed doubts the move will stop the
violence. Almost 4,500 health workers were attacked while working last
financial year and it appears many of these incidents were also fuelled by
alcohol and drugs. The union's secretary
Beth Mohle said although her members appreciated what the Government was trying
to do and that penalties would help, it was not that simple. "The penalties
themselves, we are just not quite sure that that will make any difference
because the issue is we should be preventing the violence and not just relying
on increased penalties," she said.
Read more: Psychiatric units struggle with scourge of smuggled drugs The Age; New penalties won't stop violence again health workers, Queensland Nurses Union says ABC News online. More information on Violence
WI-FI and health
We are increasingly surrounded by Wi-Fi technology – in our homes, in cafes and in schools. Just this week the Victorian government announced it was going to provide free Wi-Fi in the CBD and Vic Market. This can be extremely convenient – but are there any potential health and safety effects? And if so, what are they? Are some people, for example the young, or pregnant women, more at risk than others? What precautions should we be taking? There is quite a bit of controversy over the potential health effects of non-ionising or electromagnetic radiation and whether Australian exposure standards, which have not been updated for many years, are sufficient to protect those exposed. There are some communities which have decided to take a precautionary approach, and not to allow wholesale introduction of Wi-Fi into their schools, and public places.
If you are interested in learning more about what the potential effects are, and what could be done to minimise the potential risks, then you may be interested in hearing two world-renowned scientists on the issue:
- Prof Dariusz Leszczynsk (University of Helsinki, Finland, former advisor to the World Health Organisation) who will speak on the inadequacy of current standards; and
- Dr Mary Redmayne, (Monash University Research Fellow, Dept of Epidemiology Centre for Population Health Research on Electromagnetic Energy) on RF exposure at school and home.
Monday November 17, 7pm – 8.30pm, Dolphin Room, Sandringham Hotel (cnr Beach
& Bay Road, Sandringham). To reserve
seats, please email email@example.com or sms 0412 669 976. (note: mobiles
must be turned off on the night)
Read more on Non-ionising Radiation
Sunshine North Wunderlich asbestos exposure - more
In a follow up story to news of a spate of asbestos related deaths around the Wunderlich factory in Sunshine North, the ABC's 7.30 program last week told of the anger and shock of families in the area, and how an asbestos litigant solicitor from Slater and Gordon first identified the problem. A member of one local family says they had struggled to explain the unlucky run of lung disease-related deaths (four) in the family, but news of the Wunderlich factory's deadly legacy had made things clearer. Both his mother and aunt played behind the factory as children. According to the article, Slater and Gordon's Margaret Kent was responsible for putting together the pieces of the Wunderlich puzzle – a resident of the inner-west, she noticed the names of a number of Sunshine North streets popping up in the firm's case files. The tragedy is that despite knowing decades ago that exposure to asbestos could be dangerous, Wunderlich left its asbestos where children could play in it.
Read more: Wunderlich factory: victims and families of those with asbestos-related illness describe shock and anger and 7.30 'Biggest asbestos tragedy since Wittenoom' faces Melbourne suburb ABC
Now Queensland suburbs also being checked
The breaking of the Wunderlich story has now led health officials in Queensland to launch an investigation into deaths and illnesses among people who lived near old asbestos factories in Brisbane. It has been reported that former residents have recalled playing as children on waste dumps at the former Wunderlich plant in suburban Gaythorne and seeing clouds of dust over surrounding streets which left windows and washing coated in white powder.
Health Minister Lawrence Springborg says Queensland Health staff will begin investigating concerns about possible impacts on residents by reviewing medical records of asbestos-related cancer cases to check for links to local addresses. The investigation will also look at the area around the former James Hardie fibrolite plant in Doggett St, Newstead, which operated for 48 years until 1983. The site was redeveloped about a decade ago. The Wunderlich factory has been converted into small industrial units.
Queensland officials will also act on evidence gathered from
investigations being made by their counterparts in Victoria
into the effects from a Wunderlich factory in the Melbourne suburb of Sunshine North.
Read more: The Courier Mail Old asbestos dump sites may be a sleeper issue Investigation into links between asbestos-related cancers and Brisbane suburbs near factories
Mr Fluffy asbestos: cabinet to lend
ACT govt money for clean-up
This week Senator Eric Abetz announced the Commonwealth Government would be providing the ACT Government with a concessional loan of up to $1 billion to deliver a programme to buy-back and demolish houses in the ACT affected by Mr Fluffy loose-fill asbestos. He said the facility would allow the ACT to borrow the money at the Commonwealth's interest rate for a period of 10 years, allowing savings to the ACT Government of up to $32 million over the life of the loan.
The ACT and
Commonwealth governments have reached an 'in principle agreement' despite the
fact the ACT had been seeking a substantial contribution, not a loan. In a
Guardian article on Monday, ACT chief minister Katy Gallagher said, "The
commonwealth has significant responsibility here, and that's because they were
the governing entity when this business was allowed to operate in the
territory. Now that we know 20 years on that there are still ongoing legacy
issues then ultimately I don't think it's an issue the commonwealth can wash
its hands of." According to the ABC,
Abetz, however, in explaining the loan, said "we have no technical or
legal responsibility in this area."
Read more: Senator Abetz Media Release Not happy, Senator: ABC Canberra pic and The Guardian
HSE survey: shocking ignorance of asbestos risk
A September survey carried out by Censuswide and commissioned by the UK's HSE and based on interviews with 500 tradespeople found many were ignorant of the risks posed by asbestos. One of the headline findings in the survey was that 14 per cent of respondents believed that drinking a glass of water would help protect them from the deadly dust. Twenty seven per cent thought opening a window would help keep them safe; and only 30 per cent were able to identify all the correct measures for safe asbestos working; while 57 per cent made at least one potentially lethal mistake in trying to identify how to stay safe. Given tradespeople potentially come into contact with asbestos on average more than 100 times a year, the findings are of grave concern. HSE figures reveal that 20 tradespeople, on average, die every week from asbestos-related diseases.
Censuswide's research also revealed that while 53 per cent of respondents knew that asbestos could be in old buildings built before 1970, only 15 per cent knew that it could still be found in buildings built up to 2000. The HSE's new safety campaign (to improve preparations for dealing with asbestos) was subsequently launched by the minister responsible for health and safety. Part of the campaign is the Beware Asbestos
November 16 – 18, 2014
Last chance ASEA's 1st International Conference on Asbestos Awareness and Management: "Working towards an asbestos free Australia" (Crown Casino November 16-18) is fast approaching. Editor of the OHS Reps@Work website and SafetyNet will be there as a panellist for Asbestos and "DIY" session. Asbestoswise will also be present at the ASEA stand – happy to give information and advice.
Read more: ASEA Conference including program information, and registration details.
Asbestos Awareness Week:
November 24 - 28
Asbestos Awareness Week is fast approaching. Remember there are events scheduled during the week, but if you can't attend one of these, then consider organising something in your workplace. This could include a minute's silence for the thousands of Australian workers and members of the community who have become victims of this toxic substance; checking that your employer has an up to date register as required by the regulations; or a short information and training session. Read more: Asbestos Awareness Week 2014
ADAO October eNewsletter
US Asbestos Disease Awareness Association (ADAO) has made its October newsletter available online. The newsletter features a number of articles and individuals' stories. Linda Reinstein, ADAO President, will be one of the international guest speakers at ASEA's 1st International Conference on Asbestos Awareness and Management.
ADAO October eNewsletter
Want to know about Asbestos laws and more – go to the Asbestos section on the site.
Government must join Ebola fight
The Federal Government must respond to requests for help from the international community and send medical teams to West Africa to combat the Ebola crisis, the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (ANMF) said last week. The call comes as a new national survey conducted by the union received an extraordinary response from Australian nurses and midwives. The preliminary results of the survey, which asks for nurses' and midwives' views on Ebola, show the majority believe the Abbott Government must co-ordinate health teams from Australia to support the international fight against the Ebola epidemic.
"We have been overwhelmed by the response to our
national survey," ANMF Federal Secretary Lee Thomas said on Friday. "In just
over 12 hours, 135 nurses responded saying they would volunteer to be part of a
health team to assist with Ebola if the Government coordinated the effort.
Almost 90% believe the Government should prioritise Australian resources
towards guaranteeing the safe return of Australian volunteers," she said. "We're
not surprised that our nurses will always want to act on their concern to help
others, but we've been staggered by the number of nurses and midwives who have
taken part in the survey so far and called on the Government to do more." At the time of print, over 200 nurses had
told the union they would be willing to help.
Read more: ANMF Media Release ANMF Survey
five ACT public servants experience workplace bullying
A recent survey has found about a fifth of ACT public servants have experienced bullying in the workplace. The ACT Public Service State of the Service Report includes the results of the survey of 6,299 servants conducted earlier this year.
It showed that between 10 and 20 per cent of respondents said they had experienced bullying at work in the previous year. Between 20 and 30 per cent of workers said they had witnessed someone being harassed.
Chief Minister Katy Gallagher said bullying was
unacceptable and would not be tolerated. "Bullying is not condoned in the
ACT public service and where it is identified, it is responded to very swiftly
and appropriately," she said, and added that legislation would soon be
introduced to create a code of conduct for the ACT public service.
Source: ABC News online
International Union News
Bangladesh: Over 1,000 garment factories now inspected
A union-brokered safety accord has seen garment factory inspections across Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Accord last week announced that initial inspections of factories covered by the accord had been completed by the September 2014 deadline. From these inspections of 1,106 garment factories in the country, the Accord's inspectors identified more than 80,000 safety issues needing to be resolved. "We have found safety hazards in all factories, which was to be expected. The safety findings have ranged from minor to significant. The Accord team is now working intensively with factory owners, brands, and labour colleagues to ensure the safety findings are corrected," Brad Loewen, the Accord's chief safety inspector said in a statement. Jyrki Raina, general secretary of the global union IndustriALL that was, with sister global union UNI, instrumental in the creation of the Accord, said: "Thanks to the inspections the repair work has already started – the journey towards a safe and sustainable garment industry in Bangladesh is well and truly under way. We will continue to organise the factories to build strong unions capable of securing workers' rights." The Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh came into being after the tragedy at Rana Plaza in April 2013, when a building collapse killed over 1,100 workers. The signatory brands have committed to support the Bangladeshi garment sector with continued sourcing commitments and support for remediation where needed.
Read more: Accord statement IndustriALL Media Release Source: Risks 677
New Zealand: Claims expose the most dangerous jobs
Almost a quarter of agriculture, forestry and fishery workers in New Zealand had a work-related injury claim accepted by the country's official Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) in 2013. Provisional figures for the year released by Statistics New Zealand have revealed that agriculture, forestry, and fishery workers made 226 injury claims per 1,000 full-time equivalent employees, and 2.6 per cent of these workers experienced an injury that resulted in a week or more off work. "Clearly workers in these areas are over represented. There is something seriously and systemically wrong when a quarter of the workforce in any particular sector are injured at work," said Helen Kelly, president of the national union federation NZCTU. "There seems to be an acceptance that there are some sectors where a certain number of injuries, or even fatalities, are expected. This is an unacceptable perspective. Every worker should be able to return home from work safely." She added: "The thing all three of these sectors have in common is workers have no viable form of independent representation including through unions and the current employment law makes collectivising across these types of businesses extremely difficult. The industries are then characterised by poor working conditions, high turnover, and a lack of investment in training and long hours." Kelly warned: "Instead of dealing with this reality, the government intends to attack workers' rights and in this environment, we can expect these disastrous statistics to be repeated next year."
Read more: NZCTU news release Source: Risks 677
UK: HSR survey released
The 11th biennial TUC survey of union health and safety representatives, was published last week during European Health and Safety at Work Week. As reported in an earlier SafetyNet, the survey found the five most commonly cited hazards were stress, bullying and harassment, overwork, back strains and slips, and trips and falls.
At the top of the list was stress: Over two-thirds of safety reps (67 per cent) taking part in the survey said that stress, and the effect it is having on their colleagues, is one of the main concerns they have to deal with at work. However concern with bullying/harassment has grown steadily as a top-five concern throughout the period of the TUC's safety rep surveys.
One in six of reps also reported that their employers did not conduct risk assessments: in breach of health and safety law. TUC General Secretary Frances O'Grady said: "It's shocking that so many employers are breaking the law and putting their staff at risk of illness and accidents by their sheer negligence. Not only does this put people in danger while doing their jobs, the consequences also carry a high cost for British businesses and public services because it results in lower productivity and more staff spending time off sick.
"Stress remains the top concern for health and
safety workplace reps. It's a particular problem in parts of the public sector
like the NHS and local government that have been hit by cuts and top-down
reorganisations. Sickness and absence from stress is one of the false economies
of public sector austerity."
Read more: Report Focus on health and safety: Trade union trends survey, October 2014 [pdf]
Turkey: Another mine disaster
Earlier this week (October 28) another mine disaster occurred in Turkey, with eighteen miners trapped 300 metres below the surface at the mine near the town of Ermenek in Karaman province. Twenty others either escaped or were rescued – but hopes of rescuing the 18 are fading. Over 3,000 people have been killed and over 100,000 have received various injuries since 1941 in mining accidents in Turkey. There are 740 coalmines and 48,706 miners in in the country.
Recently, the Turkish Cabinet sent a draft bill
to the Parliament to ratify ILO Convention 176 on Safety in Mines after
effective lobbying by global and national unions together with strong public
opinion. However it is still pending on the agenda of the Parliament. In September, the Parliament passed a bill giving
some new rights for miners on working hours, severance payments, retirement age,
lowest wage to be double the legal minimum wage. However a comprehensive
approach for health and safety issues in mines is still missing. IndustriALL
Global Union says the ILO Convention must be ratified without delay.
Read more: IndustriALL Media Release
Stress associated with
memory deficits in aging
A recent US animal study published in the Journal of Neuroscience suggests that stress may accelerate age-related changes in the brain. The study adds to a body of evidence suggesting stress may accelerate cognitive decline later in life. It found that aged rats with high levels of the stress hormone corticosterone showed structural changes in the brain and short-term memory deficits.
While most of us experience some cognitive decline as they get older, the extent of these changes and how rapidly they progress varies greatly. Research suggests that how the body responds to stress may be one of the factors influencing how the brain ages. Multiple animal studies have linked high levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (similar to the human stress hormone cortisol) with age-related structural and functional decline in the hippocampus, which plays a key role in long-term memory.
The researchers in this study measured the amount of the
stress hormone in the blood of young and old rats and examined cells in the
prefrontal cortex (involved in short-term memory). They found that older
animals with high levels of the stress hormone had fewer connections between
prefrontal cortex cells than the older animals with lower levels of the
hormone. In contrast, prefrontal cortex cells appeared similar in younger
animals regardless of stress hormone levels. Older rats with higher levels of
stress hormone displayed a 20 percent reduction in the density of dendritic
spines (the small protrusions on neurons that come into close contact with
other cells to form connections between cells) relative to age-matched rats
with less stress hormone. The
researchers also compared how the young and old rats performed on a simple
working memory task (remembering which arm of a two-arm maze contained a food
reward after varying periods of delay). Older animals with higher levels of
corticosterone made more errors when predicting the location of the reward than
age-matched animals with less of the stress hormone after a brief period of
Read more: EurekAlert Press Release
and Safety Week
For those not attending any of the VWA's Health and Safety Week activities – the Authority kept the Tweets coming to anyone who follows them on Twitter. While this provided a 'taste' of what was being presented, too often these were not clear, being out of context. The Tweets can be read on the VWA News website. Those attending were promised that at least some of the presentations would be placed on the VWA Health and Safety Week website 'soon'. Meanwhile, the VWA says that after a successful three days in Melbourne, the Health and Safety Week was then held in a number of regional locations until 31 October.
The latest edition of VWA's Safety Soapbox was sent out this week (October 29) The edition announces that the Authority has updated its Online Notification of Asbestos Removal, "to make it even easier for licensed asbestos removalists to meet their regulatory obligations" The updated version of the online asbestos notification system will be launched on 5 November 2014. Find out more The newsletter also has news from around the country, and its regular 'Absolute Shocker'.
There were 68
incidents notified to the VWA since the last edition, for the period October 8
- 22, including several near-misses with gas pipes or electricity cables being
damaged, a worker who was overcome by carbon monoxide fumes, several
lacerations, fractures and crush injuries, five electric shocks, and several
Read more, including link to the list of reported incidents: October 29 Safety Soapbox
Harmonised WHS bill introduced in parliament
Western Australia last week tabled a draft mirror Work Health and Safety Bill, for a three-month public comment period, which also has the same maximum penalties as the model WHS Act. However, the Bill excludes a number of provisions the WA conservative Government has continued to oppose, including the right of HSR to order a ceasework and union right of entry. WorkSafe WA Commissioner Lex McCulloch said union entry was provided under the state's industrial relations laws, while the decision to stop unsafe work should be made by individual workers.
FIFO Enquiry hears no
mining roster '100% safe'
The WA government has established an enquiry into Fly In Fly Out (FIFO) work arrangements following nine workers suicides in a 12-month period. The Education and Health Parliamentary Standing Committees are looking at the contributing factors leading to mental illness and suicide among FIFO workers, along with the legislative and regulatory framework. Committee chairman Liberal MP Graham Jacobs said evidence from the mines department and Work Safe WA indicated there was a lack of monitoring by government agencies in accommodation camps. He said workers were often required to live on site, but no single agency was responsible for overseeing those facilities. "There seems to be a significant gap in that monitoring jurisdiction responsibility and we will continue to pursue that with our inquiry to try and overcome the issues of confusion, those grey areas," he said.
the State Coroner has said that at least 24 FIFO workers are likely to have
committed suicide in WA over a five-year period – and these deaths do not
include many of the recent suicides that sparked this inquiry. These figures
come as Mental Health Commissioner Tim Marney, in a written submission to the
enquiry, warned that a "systemic" alcohol culture among miners and the
"exhausting" work rosters were a "serious safety issue". Mr Marney also raised issues such as increased
use of steroids and prescription drugs, workers being offered 'financial
incentives' to work up to eight weeks straight, social isolation, family stress
and being exposed to high-risk activities.
Source: ABC News online and FIFO suicides: Tim Marney, WA State Coroner reveal extent of FIFO mental health problems Perth Now
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland issued an Incident Alert on Friday last week, after a truck driver died from complications resulting from the injury sustained when he was struck on the head by a piece of falling steel that was being unloaded from his truck. The incident occurred on Wednesday 22 January 2014 at a workplace in Gracemere.
Source: WHSQ Incident Alert
The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA), has reconsidered the approval of the active constituent fenthion, registrations of all products containing fenthion, and the approvals of all associated product labels, due to a number of concerns. Fenthion is a broad spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, registered in Australia for over 50 years. It and all products containing it were placed under review in 1998 due to concerns over its toxicity (especially acute toxicity), occupational health and safety (OHS), residues in food (including dietary exposure) environmental and trade aspects. The outcome of the review is that, despite concerns, the regulator has affirmed registration of the active constituent, but varied some particulars of label approvals for two products to satisfy the requirements for continued registration. The registrations and associated label approvals of six products containing fenthion were cancelled.
Further details can be found in the APVMA Final Review Report and Regulatory Decision – Fenthion
- From NICNAS (the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme): the October edition of NICNAS Matters with items on the progress of the review of existing chemicals under the IMAP program, and more.
- From Comcare: the latest (Spring) edition of Safety Essentials - the Commonwealth regulator's ejournal has items on its Award winners, its Road Freight Transport Campaign, and more.
1 - Failure to notify VWA: just a $1000 fine
On 18 October 2013, a Pickles Auctions Pty. Limited (Pickles) employee sustained a head injury after falling two metres off a ladder while undertaking maintenance works at Pickles' Sunshine Auction Site. Under the Act, the employer had a duty to notify VWA as the worker required immediate treatment as an in-patient in hospital. Pickles, however, failed to notify the VWA of the incident and failed to provide the VWA with written notification within 48 hours. On 3 October 2014, the company pleaded guilty and was fined $1,000 without conviction and ordered to pay costs in the sum of $2,765.
2 - Failure
to notify VWA: or no fine at all!
Pacific Materials Handling Pty Ltd, a company providing materials handling solutions to manufacturing, port and logistics services across Australia, also failed to notify the VWA after an incident, failed to provide written notification to the VWA within 48 hours of the incident occurring, and failed to preserve the site when on 13 August 2013 an employee received a laceration to his right thumb while operating an angle grinder. He was taken to hospital as an in-patient and discharged on 15 August 2013. The accused pleaded guilty to breaching the Act – but on 16 October 2014 was placed on a 12 month adjourned undertaking without conviction, with a condition that it pay $1,500 to the court fund, and ordered to pay costs in the amount of $2,309 (Warrnambool Magistrates' Court).
Employees legs crushed: fine of $45,000
On 2 March 2013, an employee of Marvin Engineering was injured when a dryer gear wheel weighing between 500-700 kg fell during the raising process and crushed his legs. The company pleaded guilty to breaching Section 21(1) & 21(2)(a) of the OHS Act in that it failed, so far as was reasonably practicable to provide and maintain for its employees, a working environment that was safe and without risks to health in that it failed to provide or maintain systems of work that were, so far as was reasonably practicable, safe and without risks to health. On 16 October 2014, Marvin Engineering was fined $45,000.00 without conviction and ordered to it pay costs in the amount of $3,810.00 (Broadmeadows Magistrates Court)
Source: The VWA Prosecution result summaries