Steps and Stairs

There is nothing in OHS/WHS legislation which specifically addresses steps and/or stairs.  Both the employer and the person with management and control of a workplace have, under their general duty of care, a legal duty to ensure that the workplace is safe and without risks to health.

The specific requirements for the construction of stairways, platforms, landings and so on, however, are found elsewhere - as builders, architects etc would be aware. Steps and stairs must now comply with the Building Code of Australia - which has been given the status of building regulation by Australia's states and territories.

NOTE: NCC 2015 was adopted by the States and Territories on 1 May 2015. NCC 2016 is now available and was  adopted by the States and Territories on 1 May 2016.

The information on this page is general and for HSRs and workers only.  Employers and builders must seek separate advice from qualified architects or other suitably qualified professionals. 

The following is taken from the NCC 2015 Building Code of Australia (Volume one - commercial buildings) and is for information only - please check the Building Code for more information - this has not yet been checked against the 2016 NCC.

 A stairway must have -

  • not more than 18 nor less than 2 risers in each flight; and
  • (generally except in certain circumstances as set out in D2.13 b & c*): going (G), riser (R) and quantity (2R + G) in accordance with the Table below); and
  • (generally except in certain circumstances as set out in D2.13 b & c*), goings and risers that are constant throughout in one flight; and
  • risers which do not have any openings that would allow a 125 mm sphere to pass through between the treads; and
  • treads which have -
    • a surface with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed (in Table D2.14 of the code) when tested in accordance with AS 4586; or
    • a nosing strip with a slip-resistance classification not less than that listed (in Table D2.14) when tested in accordance with AS 4586; and
  • treads of solid construction (not mesh or other perforated material) if the stairway is more than 10 m high or connects more than 3 storeys; and
  • in a Class 9b building, not more than 36 risers in consecutive flights without a change in direction of at least 30°; and
  • in the case of a required stairway, no winders in lieu of a landing.

D2.13 b & c - set out special circumstances for 'non-required' stairways, and stairways discharging to a sloping public walkway or public road.

Table (from Table D2.13 ) Riser and Going Dimensions (mm)

 Riser (R)Going (G)*Quantity (2R + G)
 MaxMinMaxMinMaxMin
Public Stairways190115355250700550
Private Stairway190115355240700550

* The going in tapered treads (except winders in lieu of a quarter or half landing) in a curved or spiral stairway is measured -  

  1. 270 mm in from the outer side of the unobstructed width of the stairway if the stairway is less than 1 m wide (applicable to a non-required stairway only); and
  2. 270 mm from each side of the unobstructed width of the stairway if the stairway is 1 m wide or more.

In addition, the Australian Standard has recently been updated to be consistent with the Building Code: AS 1657- 2013: Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation.

Stair design

The Australian Standard contains detailed advice on steps, stairs, landings, guard rails and so on:

Rises and goings:

  • all rises (R) and all goings (G), in the same flight of stairs, shall be of uniform dimensions within a tolerance of +/-5mm
  • for each rise: minimum 130mm, maximum 225mm
  • for each going: minimum 215mm, maximum 355mm
  • The going shall be not greater than the tread depth (TD) plus a maximum gap of 30 mm between the rear edge of one tread and the nosing of the tread above.
  • The combination of twice the riser plus the going (2R + G) shall be not less than 540 mm, and not greater than 700 mm [i.e. 540 ≤ (2R + G) ≤700].

NOTE: builders must check that any stairs to be constructed comply with the Building Code and also ensure they are using the latest edition of the Australian Standard.

Guardrails and handrails

The Australian Standard specifies that except where there is a fixed structure at a distance not greater than 100mm from the stairway stile, stairways and stairway landing shall be provided with guardrailing on any exposed side.

The guardrailing must be constructed to comply with one of the following requirements:

  • A top rail, supported by posts, parallel to the floor or slope of a walkway at a vertical height of not less than 900mm above the standing level of such a platform or walkway (where the fall height is significant, or where there may be wind forces, the height should be increased to at least 1000mm).
  • Where the guardrailing is of post and rail construction there are requirements, such as distance between rails; OR
  • When it is constructed with welded mesh, supported by posts and provided with a reinforced top edge capable of withstanding the prescribed design loads

With regard to handrails:

  • Every stairway shall be provided with at least one handrail which shall have a smooth continuous top surface throughout the length of each stairway flight  and have no obstruction on or above them that will tend to break a handhold.
  • Where the width of the stairway exceeds 1000mm, a handrail shall be provided on each side.

Slips, trips and falls

Slipping, tripping or falling are risks that can be associated with steps and stairs, and can lead to serious injuries.  Under s21 of the 2004 OHS Act, the employer has a duty of care to provide and maintain a safe and healthy workplace - all potential hazards must be identified, the associated risk assessed and then controls introduced to eliminate or reduce those risks as far as practicable.

Also under the Act (s26), persons who 'manage or control' workplaces must ensure that the workplace and the means of entering and leaving it are safe and without risks to health.

For more information, including advice to OHS reps, and links, go to the slips, trips and falls hazard information page.

References:

  • The National Construction Code - 2015: The Building Code of Australia and The BCA Guide (go to the NCC online to register and get access to the Code and guide).
    NOTE: the National Construction Code 2016 is now available on a revamped ABCB website.
  • AS 1657- 2013: Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation. (this can be obtained from SAI Global - publishers of Australian Standards)

Amended June 2016

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